Integrated Slum Upgrading
The reviews of slum upgrading around the world (found on Global Comparisons page) inform our integrated approach to slum upgrading. By integrated we mean policies and program design that link: (1) a meaningful and prominent role for civil society through open government institutions (2) creative financing for slum dwellers where upgrading is also a budget priority for governments, and (3) implementation that provides employment and control for local residents along with qualitative and quantitative indicators, reported publicly, so that residents, local governmental and international institutions can learn what is or is not working. Our studio has focused on recommendations to address these issues within Kenya's Draft 2013 National Slum Upgrading and Prevention Policy. Details on our suggestions can be found below.
GOVERNANCE AND PARTICIPATION
An active role from the central government is essential to organize, consolidate and lead slum upgrading efforts. Coordination between state and local government actors is essential to create policies aimed at lasting slum upgrading. Integrated polices which target improvements in areas of health, environmental and infrastructural are crucial to the longevity of long-term slum upgrading efforts.
Equally important is an active and clearly defined role for civil society organizations in mobilizing communities and mediating disputes and conflicts. Encouraging private sector interaction in slum upgrading policies can also be valuable.
To read more about the studio's perspective on governance strategies supporting slum upgrading in Kenya, download the PDF below.
Slum upgrading policies have employed public, private and community funding models. Many cases utilize all three approaches, at various stages of planning and implementation. Overall, an appropriate funding model must encourage local control in decision-making, be financially sustainable in the long run and fund large investments in infrastructure.
Control over the early stages of the upgrading process, when the required scale of funding is low, allows communities to have agency in decision-making. Moreover, substantial investments in infrastructure require creative ways to catalyze various funding streams, including the private sector, and minimize risk. In addition, low-interest loans address a critical market failure that affects the development of community-driven low-income housing: access to large-scale credit.
For the studio's perspective on financial models for upgrading, download the PDF below:
IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION
Evaluative measures should be integrated into project implementation in order to inform strategy, refine implementation and identify new trends and opportunities in ongoing projects. It is important to identify relevant outcomes across different thematic areas in order to create integrated policies aimed at lasting approach to slum upgrading.
Reliable methods of data collection and tool development can be valuable in providing new perspectives and analysis. These processes should be community-driven and transparent, and engage all stakeholders.
For more information on the studio's perspective on implementation and evaluation measures, download the PDF below.